Treaty of versailles homework help

One can never know whether either rigorous Franco-British enforcement of the original treaty or a more generous treaty would have avoided a new war. Certainly the British and American governments after 1945 sought to avoid many of the problems that had been raised by the Treaty of Versailles, especially regarding reparations, and the division of Germany and the Cold War enabled them generously to rebuild the western zones and to integrate them into a western alliance without renewing fears of German aggression. Meanwhile, they deferred certain fundamental issues for so long that no formal peace treaty was ever written to end World War II .

Before the end of the war, President Woodrow Wilson put forward his Fourteen Points , which represented the liberal position at the Conference and helped shape world opinion. Wilson was concerned with rebuilding the European economy, encouraging self-determination, promoting free trade, creating appropriate mandates for former colonies, and above all, creating a powerful League of Nations that would ensure the peace. He opposed harsh treatment of Germany but was outmanoeuvered by Britain and France. He brought along top intellectuals as advisors, but his refusal to include prominent Republicans in the American delegation made his efforts seem partisan, and it contributed to a risk of political defeat at home. [39]

The League of Nations was created. This did happen even if Germany was initially excluded from it.
Land had to be handed over the Poland, France, Belgium and Denmark. This did happen – all the land Germany was required to hand over, was handed over. Territory put under League of Nations control was handed over to the League.
All overseas colonies were to be handed over to the League. This did happen.
All land taken from Russia had to be handed back to Russia. This did happen though land in the western area became Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in keeping with the belief in national self-determination.
Germany’s army had to be reduced to 100,000 men. On paper this happened. The fact that Germany side-stepped the rule did not mean that she literally broke it – though what she did was a deliberate attempt to break this term. German soldiers in the 1920’s were signed on for a short contract of service and then put in the reserves once their time had finished. Therefore, Germany never had more than 100,000 soldiers serving at any one time though she certainly had substantial reserve soldiers which boosted Hitler when he renounced the clauses of Versailles.
Germany’s navy was reduced to 6 battleships with no submarines. This happened. Germany could not afford battleships in the aftermath of the war and most navies were now moving to smaller (by degrees), faster ships that could also carry weapons that carried a punch – such as cruisers. Aircraft carriers were also being developed with greater commitment. Submariners were trained abroad – Versailles did not cover this, so it did not break the terms of Versailles – only the spirit.
No air force was allowed . This happened but as with submariners, potential pilots were trained abroad or using gliders in Germany to educate them in the theory of flying. This did not break Versailles.
Western Germany was to be demilitarised. This happened.
Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria. This happened.
Germany had to accept the “War Guilt Clause” and pay reparations. The former happened in the sense that Germany signed the Treaty which meant that she accepted this term on paper – if not in fact. Germany did try and pay reparations when she could do so. She did not refuse to pay in 1922. She simply could not produce what was needed that year and this led to the French invasion of the Ruhr. In the 1920’s it was the Allies who took the decision to reduce reparations and eased Germany’s plight in so doing. The first instance of refusal to pay reparations came in 1933 when Hitler announced that Germany would not pay – and the Allies did nothing.

Treaty of versailles homework help

treaty of versailles homework help


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