ideology 1796, "science of ideas," originally "philosophy of the mind which derives knowledge from the senses" (as opposed to metaphysics), from Fr. idéologie "study or science of ideas," coined by Fr. philosopher Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836) from idéo- "of ideas," from Gk. idea (see idea) + -logy. Meaning "systematic set of ideas, doctrines" first recorded 1909. Ideologue first recorded 1815, in ref. to the Fr. Revolutionaries."Ideology ... is usually taken to mean, a prescriptive doctrine that is not supported by rational argument." [. Raphael, "Problems of Political Philosophy,"
Gaetano Mosca in his work The Ruling Class (1896) developed the theory that claims that in all societies, an "organized minority" will dominate and rule over the "disorganized majority".   Mosca claims that there are only two classes in society, "the governing" (the organized minority) and "the governed" (the disorganized majority).  He claims that the organized nature of the organized minority makes it irresistible to any individual of the disorganized majority.  Mosca developed this theory in 1896 in which he argued that the problem of the supremacy of civilian power in society is solved in part by the presence and social structural design of militaries.  He claims that the social structure of the military is ideal because it includes diverse social elements that balance each other out and more importantly is its inclusion of an officer class as a "power elite".  Mosca presented the social structure and methods of governance by the military as a valid model of development for civil society.  Mosca's theories are known to have significantly influenced Mussolini's notion of the political process and fascism.