Information communication technology essay

The first major model for communication was introduced by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in 1949 [41] The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation , which they deemed noise.

Another interpretation of the KL divergence is the "unnecessary surprise" introduced by a prior from the truth: suppose a number X is about to be drawn randomly from a discrete set with probability distribution p(x) . If Alice knows the true distribution p(x) , while Bob believes (has a prior ) that the distribution is q(x) , then Bob will be more surprised than Alice, on average, upon seeing the value of X . The KL divergence is the (objective) expected value of Bob's (subjective) surprisal minus Alice's surprisal, measured in bits if the log is in base 2. In this way, the extent to which Bob's prior is "wrong" can be quantified in terms of how "unnecessarily surprised" it is expected to make him.

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Information communication technology essay

information communication technology essay


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