Gender discrimination, or sex discrimination is a form of discrimination that includes many different aspects of everday life. Not only is it illegal to treat someone unfairly or inappropriately due to their sex (whether one is male or female), but courts have extended coverage of sex discrimination to include discrimination that also encompasses pregnancy, sexual harassment, sexual orientation, and gender identity issues as well. Regardless, the scope of federal gender discrimination protections with respect to LGBT individuals is unsettled and remains a contentious issue.
Richard A. Posner writes that "Traditionally, rape was the offense of depriving a father or husband of a valuable asset — his wife's chastity or his daughter's virginity".  Historically, rape was seen in many cultures (and is still seen today in some societies) as a crime against the honor of the family , rather than against the self-determination of the woman. As a result, victims of rape may face violence, in extreme cases even honor killings, at the hands of their family members.   Catharine MacKinnon argues that in male dominated societies, sexual intercourse is imposed on women in a coercive and unequal way, creating a continuum of victimization, where women have few positive sexual experiences. [xix] Socialization within rigid gender constructs often creates an environment where sexual violence is common. [xx] One of the challenges of dealing with sexual violence is that in many societies women are perceived as being readily available for sex, and men are seen as entitled to their bodies, until and unless women object.   [xxi]
Harassment is a form of discrimination. It can include sexually explicit or other inappropriate comments, questions, jokes, name-calling, images, email and social media, transphobic, homophobic or other bullying, sexual advances, touching and other unwelcome and ongoing behaviour that insults, demeans, harms or threatens a person in some way. Assault or other violent behaviour is also a criminal matter. Trans people and other persons can experience harassing behaviour because of their gender identity or expression (gender-based harassment) and/or their sex (sexual harassment).